Irregular Menstruation has become an extremely common phenomenon. In some women, menses get delayed for three to six weeks, but do not skip a month altogether. Such a situation is called metrorrhagia. Oligomenorrhea is the condition in which only two to three periods occur in a year. This is mainly caused by infrequent ovulation. Irregularities in ovulation can be either due to low oestrogen or due to high oestrogen. In low oestrogen case, follicles are not produced and in high oestrogen type, the produced follicles are not released from the ovary and remain arrested.
Causes of metrorrhagia ranges from stress to other ingested medications. Substances such as caffeine that disrupt the functioning of corpus luteum can lead to missed periods. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption also interrupt the menstrual cycle and make it irregular. Alcohol adversely affects the production of the female hormones, oestrogen and progesterone by the liver. Eating disorders can also block ovulation.
Hypothalamic amenorrhea is the situation in which a woman does not menstruate at all. This phenomenon is likely due to the changes that occur in brain proteins and hormones. As a result of such alterations, follicle development is checked and thereby the production of oestrogen is lowered. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is yet another cause of infrequent menstrual cycle. This is a comparatively complex situation in which follicles develop and produce oestrogen but the eggs do not get released. Here, the levels of oestrogen will remain high but menstruation will be infrequent. When periods finally occur, it will be a heavy one with prolonged bleeding. The continuous level of increased oestrogen makes the uterus lining to develop and it gets thickened. This layer also falls off along with the periods flow.
Together with proper medication; steps such as reducing stress, avoiding overly strenuous physical exercise, getting rid of eating disorders and cutting down the intake of caffeine, alcohol and tobacco will effectively bring the menstrual cycle back to order.