Endometriosis occurs when the tissue that lines the inner walls of the uterus (endometrial cells) grows somewhere else in the body. Such tissues generally get attached to the pelvic cavity, ovaries, fallopian tubes or pelvic sidewall. Other probable spots where endometriosis can leave its lesions are rectal-vaginal septum and uterosacral ligaments. In rare cases, it can also appear in areas inside the vagina, bladder, spine, lungs or even inside the brain.
Endometriosis gets initially reported as an instance of pelvic pain. Often the pain is linked with that of the menstrual cycle but it will occur even otherwise as well. This disorder disrupts a woman’s anatomy and might even lead to the fusion of internal organs. The pain that occurs, as part of regular periods will aggravate before menstruation and lessens after the periods get over. Pain during intercourse, bowel movements or even while urinating are also other symptoms of endometriosis. The range of pain varies according to the location of the endometrial cells. This condition is called as “frozen pelvis.” Infertility is yet another side effect that may affect women with endometriosis.
The root cause of endometriosis remains unknown. Retrograde menstruation is considered as a possible reason. This is the condition in which menstrual blood flows into the fallopian tubes and also into the pelvic and abdominal cavities. However, this is not the only cause of endometriosis since all women with retrograde menstruation do not develop the disorder.
Coelomic metaplasia is sited as another possible reason. It is the condition in which primitive cells around the pelvic organs grows into other forms of tissues. In this case, these cells develop as endometrial cells. The disorder is also likely to creep in during surgeries where endometrial tissues get directly implanted. The most sensible explanation given for the development of endometriosis in brain and other organs away from pelvic region is that the endometrial tissues get transferred to them through body fluids such as lymph and blood.